Here is the 2nd of a 3-part series (℅ Dr. Gregor of www.nutritionfacts.org) on the mechanics of Type II diabetes and Insulin Resistance. You can read the 1st article at www.purehomeopathy.me/2015/10/what-causes-insulin-resistance-part-i. Fascinating stuff. Also, it’s HUGELY empowering! You can reduce your chances of developing a chronic disease from between 70-90% through waiting a WFPS diet alone.
THE SPILLOVER EFFECT LINKS OBESITY TO DIABETES
Free fatty acids (meaning free fat circulating in the bloodstream not packaged into triglycerides) result in inflammation, toxic fat breakdown products, and oxidative stress, which can gum up the insulin receptor pathway and lead to insulin resistance in our muscles. And insulin resistance is what causes pre-diabetes and Type 2 diabetes.
As the level of fat in the blood rises, the body’s ability to clear sugar from the blood drops. Where does this fat in our blood that’s wreaking all this havoc come from? It comes 1) from the fat that we eat, and 2) from the fat that we wear.
The number of fat cells we have stays constant in adulthood. It’s interesting, the way they figured that out is by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon trapped in our DNA from all the nuclear bomb tests [How lovely! E.S.] . Anyway, after massive weight loss, our fat cells shrink as they off-load fat, but the number stays the same.
Conversely, when we gain weight, our fat cells stretch as we pack more and more into each individual fat cell. So when our belly, butt, or thighs get big, we’re not adding more fat cells – we’re just cramming more fat into each cell. At a certain point our cells become so bloated that they spill fat back into the bloodstream.
This is an illustration of the so-called spillover effect. Not only does an obese person have more fat, but they’re constantly spilling that fat into their bloodstream. So that could be the link between obesity and diabetes. Fat is spilling out from our fat cells and gets lodged in our muscle cells, leading to the insulin resistance that promotes the onset of Type 2 diabetes.
Or the fat can enter our bloodstream through our mouth. If you put people on a low-carb diet, fat builds up in their muscle within two hours, compared to a low-fat diet, and insulin sensitivity drops. And the more fat in the muscle, the lower the ability to clear sugar from the blood. It doesn’t take years for this to happen, just hours after these foods go into our mouths. A fat-rich diet can increase fat in the blood and this increase is accompanied by a decrease in insulin sensitivity.
Studies clearly demonstrate that fat in the blood directly inhibit glucose transport and usage in our muscles, which is responsible for clearing about 85% of the glucose out of blood. These findings also indicate an important role of nutrition, particularly increased consumption of fat, for the development of insulin resistance.
Normally we only have 1 to 500 micromoles of free fat floating around in our blood stream at any one time, but those who are obese are constantly spilling fat out into their bloodstream. But we can reach those same levels in our blood eating a high-fat diet. So a skinny person eating a low carb diet can have the same level of fat in their blood that obese people do. Similarly, being obese is like eating some horrible bacon and butter diet all day, because obese persons are constantly spilling fat into their bloodstream no matter what goes in their mouth.
K L Spalding, E Arner, P O Westermark, S Bernard, B A Bucholz, O Bergmann, L Blomgvist, J Hoffstedt, E Naslund, T Britton, H Concha, M Hassan, M Ryden, J Frisen, P Arner. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature. 2008 Jun 5;453(7196):783-7.
J S Pankow, B B Duncan, M I Schmidt, C M Ballantyne, D J Couper, R C Hoogeveen, S H Golden: Athersclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Fasting plasma free fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jan;27(1):77-82.
O P Bachmann, D B Dahl K Brechtel, J Machann, M Happ, T Maier, M Loviscach, M Stumvoll, C D Claussen, F Schick, H U Haring, S Jacob. Effects of intravenous and dietary lipid challenge on intramyocellular lipid content and the relation with insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes. 2001 Nov;50(11):2579-84.
S Hocking, D Samocha-Bonet, K L Milner, J R Greenfield, D J Chisholm. Adiposity and Insulin Resistance in Humans: The Role of the Different Tissue and Cellular Lipid Depots. Endocr Rev. 2013 Aug;34(4):463-500.